Today we know that many factors are influenced by the health, which we can categorize in three groups: internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) determinants and the existing health care system as a third factor.
The internal ones are the determinants relating to biological factors: hereditary – a genetic image with which we were born, or acquired during life – such as for example. Physical fitness, acquired immunity, increased blood pressure or reduced lung functionality as a result of an earlier infection. Some internal determinants are formed by the relationship between hereditary and acquired components.
The external determinants relate to the physical environment, life-style factors and social environment. The physical environment implies a living environment with all its elements, such as: food, hygiene and residence, and physical (e.g. noise, heat) and chemical agents (e.g. environmental pollution, hazardous substances at the workplace) and biotic factors (Microorganisms). Lifestyle factors relate to certain forms of behavior that are reflected over a longer period. These include conscious, health-oriented behavior, as well as behavioral and health-enhancing practices. The social environment includes the socio-economic status of a person, but also the middle (city, state), ethnic background, social relations and the working environment.
Important chain of all the chains
When we talk about infectious diseases, the legality of occurrence or absence are defined as the so-called. epidemiological chain. This means: In order for an infectious disease to appear and then spread, certain conditions must be fulfilled:
- Source of infection,
- Transmission and contagion pathways,
- Entrance site of infection,
- The sufficient amount and virulence of the infectious agents (e.g., one microbial tuberculosis is sufficient to cause the disease if the epidemiological chain is fixed, whereas the occurrence of salmonellosis requires 10 – 10 000 and more, depending on the type of Salmonella),
- The sensitivity or disposition of the host for the disease concerned (the state of immunity or the defensive strength of the organism).
These factors relate to each other. In practice, this means that the disappearance of any of the strands of the epidemiological chain will prevent the occurrence of infectious disease or its expansion.
The most effective way of preventing infectious diseases would be certainly the detection and isolation of sources of infection. As it is not always possible, in everyday practice, it acts as a “Kariku” that is available or specific to an infectious disease. For example, for waterborne diseases, it is important to ensure water health and the drainage system of sanitary waste water (sewage). An example of the disease for which these measures were most significant was the abdominal typhoid.
From insects to Touch
Pathways spreading infectious diseases are the means and means by which microorganisms (infectious germ) are transmitted from the source of infection to the new host. In connection with the entrance site of the infection (the penetration of infectious agents in the organism), for various infectious diseases there are individual specific ways of entry into the organism, or an individual causative agent can enter in several ways. Essentially, there are three places of entry of microorganisms (infectious germ) in the organism:
- Respiratory system
- Digestive system
- Skin and visible mucous membranes
Infectious diseases, therefore, can be spread:
- Touch (Contact)
-Direct or direct,
-Indirectly or indirectly,
- Contaminated water,
- Contaminated land,
- Through arthropods (artropods – insects, e.g. tick),
- Via placental – Transplacental in the course of pregnancy.
Also, the pathways of disease spreading can be defined as follows:
- Direct contact via:
-Skin and mucous membranes (kiss in the mouth, sexual intercourse, handling, snap),
-Blood (transfusion, placenta),
-Large drops (cough, sneezing),
- Intermediate contact via infected objects, food, water and earth,
- Air (small drops and dust),
- Through arthropods (artropod).
According to the characteristics related to the transmission path of infectious disease infectious agents and the entrance door, for the practical reasons of infectious disease in epidemiological practice they are classified into three groups:
- Diseases transmitted by respiratory tract – the entry point is the airways:
-Infection with dropsy and air: Children’s infectious diseases – diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, chickenpox, rubella and streptookpane angina, meningitis, lung tuberculosis and most other respiratory infections (virosis, etc.),
-Infection with dust: lung tuberculosis, pulmonary anthrax, Q fever, tularemia, staph and streptochococic infections,
- Diseases transmitted by intestinal tract – The entrance site is the digestive system (so-called diseases of Dirty Hands):
-Infection with food: abdominal typhoid, parathymus, dysentery, Alimal toxicicinfections (so called food poisoning), infectious hepatitis (“Jaundice A”, “Jaundice E”), polio, Q fever,
-Water infections: abdominal typhoid, parathymus, Dysentsia, cholera, infectious hepatitis, polio and other enterovirosis,
- Transmissive and other infectious diseases – the entrance to the skin and visible mucous membranes is:
- A) Diseases transmitted by Arconians (insects):
Ears: Spotted typhoid, return fever, yes fever,
Fleas: Bubonic plague, Murini Frecker,
Ticks: Q fever, tick encephalitis, Lyme boreliosis (erythema migrans),
Mites: Tsutsugamushi fever,
Mosquitoes: Malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, various types of encephalitis,
Of flies: sleeping sickness, anthrax, tularemia, abdominal typhoid,
- b) zoonosis (diseases transmitted from animals to humans): anthrax, Rabies, tularemia, Leptospirosis, psitacosis/orniotic (birds, parrots), salmonellosis,
- c) Wound infection: tetanus, gas gangrene, Eryizipel, SEPSA,
- d) Cutaneous infectious diseases: skin tuberculosis, furunculosis, Phlegmon,
- e) Eye disease: Trahom, epidemic conjunctivitis, eye gonorja.
Power Reverse Quantity
Under the virulence of infectious disease infectious diseases, the ability to penetrate and active propagation of microorganisms in the organs and tissues of the host is implied. The amount of germ that enters the organism and affects the occurrence of infectious diseases is called an infectious dose. In general, a large infectious dose causes a difficult clinical picture. However, the size of the infectious dose required for the occurrence of infectious disease also depends on the virulence of the infectious agents. The higher the virulence of the infectious agent, the less necessary the infectious dose, and vice versa.
When we talk about the disposition of the host, ie. Tendency of the organism to get sick of some infectious disease, we assume a certain sensitivity to infectious disease infectious agents. Factors influencing the disposition of the host can be related to the characteristics of the host or its surroundings. The main characteristics of the host, which can affect the occurrence or absence of the disease in the encounter with the agent, are:
- Immune condition
The phenomenon of infectious disease is influenced by the so-called. Exposure factor (e.g., the risk of rabies is more exposed to the hunter or veterinarian than the general population). Environmental factors that affect the occurrence of infectious diseases are:
- Climatic and meteorological factors, Housing
- Working Environment,
- Hygienic circumstances in the resort,
- Socio-economic factors (social, e.g. tuberculosis is a “social disease” in the Jarg).
Positive legislation in the Republic of Croatia prescribes health care measures against infectious diseases: the Law on protection of the population from infectious diseases and in this regard vaccination Program for infectious diseases or the Program of measures of mandatory preventive disinfection, and Pest-disinfatation.
One of the new legal regulations, which affects, or indirectly, the measures of protection against infectious diseases, is also the food law, with accompanying implementing regulations. In this connection, it is a significant novelty that the food business operator is the principal holder of responsibility for food safety and is required to carry out preventive measures of self-control on a daily basis in the food processing process according to the principles of hazard Analysis and control Critical points (so-called HACCP principles). Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.
How the individual influences the occurrence of infectious diseases, how it can prevent the phenomenon, or how it can be protected from it in the context of external risk factors
As a consumer, it is necessary to: purchase products of proven origin, respect the instructions of the Declaration in relation to the manner of storage and consumption of foodstuffs; Prepare and consume a fresh meal whenever possible, do not reheat the finished food more than once, store refrigerated food in accordance with the requirements for a particular type of food (vegetables, meat, fish, cured meats, etc.), i.e. neatly, in closed containers of boiled food; After the opening of canned goods, comply with the time limit foreseen for consumption, etc.
From the aspect of potential contamination of water as a foodstuff should be used for drinking tested health-proper water (from the water system) and be vigilant when drinking water in nature (e.g. drinking water from the river without knowing the potential risk Water upstream from the place of drinking).
Speaking of water as a medium of transmission of infectious diseases from the aspect of environmental impacts, the risk of suffering from serious (even fatal) diseases – so called. Legionyric disease is significantly associated with the maintenance of the hot water system, using a whirlpool pool, longer than the use of a certain water supply system with warm water (e.g. camps, weekend houses) due to the possibility of infectious agents-bacteria Legionella via aerosol. Improper (wild) water supply installations are not recommended.
In connection with airborne communicable diseases other than specific health measures (e.g. vaccination against a certain infectious disease), the general measures that an individual may take for their protection are hygiene measures, such as the Frequent washing of hands, especially after sneezing and coughing, use of paper wipes during sneezing and coughing, more frequent ventilation of the room to change fresh air, avoiding mass gatherings indoors and the like.
When we talk about hygienic conditions in the environment, which can significantly contribute, on the one hand, the prevention of infectious diseases and, on the other hand, the occurrence of infectious diseases if they are inappropriate, the role of each individual, but also the community in maintaining the standards Culture of housing and preservation of its environment, including:
- Respect and use of designated municipal waste disposal sites (garbage containers),
- Do not create wild landfills for large waste,
- Dispose of food residues stored in enclosed nylon bags in waste containers, etc.,
- Regularly keep containers closed in order to prevent access to insects, rodents, cats, birds,
- To use the woodwork for the intended purpose, especially take care of food waste that needs to be removed regularly (rotten fruit and vegetables, etc.), and store the groceries in closed containers,
- Feeding pets or free live cats in the vicinity of a residential building to be carried out in a hygienic manner, immediately remove food residues, give preference to dry, dehydrated food (industrial food),
- Maintenance of the garden implies neat and regular trimming of grassland, live fences and other vegetation,
- maximally reduce the stagnant water sources as a potential risk for mosquito propagation; Hermetically cover containers with water, or regularly empty the water from the flower pots and the like,
- In duly justified cases, where, for example, A tenant in a residential building with reduced capacities for a self-responsible life, which has an impact on other tenants (smell that is felt from the apartment and other signs of neglected housing), it is recommended that the tenant’s representative, or other person by arrangement, contact Specific institutions for professional assistance.
All of these examples are only part of the factors that represent one of the links in the chain for the occurrence of infectious diseases if they are not okay as they can favor attracting pests (flies, cockroaches, rodents, birds, dogs and stray cats) or directly connected to the Infectious disease (mosquito bites, scratches or bites from a sick animal, or a stab incident in injury due to immediate contact with the waste).
These and such factors of the external environment, which have been proven to have a connection with the possible emergence of a certain infectious disease, can each of us act in a positive or negative sense.